Strong Female Characters Who Actually Aren’t

There was a time when women in genre media came in three types: powerful rulers who just needed a man to tame them (Wonder Woman), helpless damsels that needed to be rescued and fall in love with the male lead (all other women), and invisible (all other movies and TV shows). There was also the Gor series, where women are, quite literally, simply sex slaves. When Star Wars introduced Princess Leia, a cocky woman who takes the gun from her would-be rescuers to effect her own escape (all while not wearing a bra), this was seen as a watershed moment for women in science fiction/fantasy. Princess Leia was seen as a fresh new type of female character, one who was actively involved in the story beyond just a plot device.

Of course, in the next movie of the series, Princess Leia falls in love with one of the male leads and by the third movie she dresses in a gold bikini, gets chained to a slug, and then plays with teddy bears. At some point, she plays all of the above traditional female roles. So one step forward, several steps back. Nobody goes to conventions dressed like Leia in her Hoth outfit.


Strong, empowered women posing for men.

Apparently geeks weren’t quite ready for a woman who wasn’t going to go all weak in the knees for them, so it was necessary to scale back Princess Leia to be more palatable to them. This seems to be a common fate for female characters. When Rose Tyler was introduced in the new Doctor Who series, she was lauded as being a companion who did more than just scream and ask the Doctor to explain things to her. Before long, though, her purpose seemed to be merely to make goo-goo eyes at the Doctor and ask him to explain things to her.

Which is not to say that geeks don’t embrace strong female characters. They still love Buffy the Vampire Slayer who, it must be admitted, really did embody many feminist character traits. However, it should be noted that in the Buffy universe, it’s dangerous if female empowerment extends to sexuality. Buffy loses her virginity to Angel, who then becomes evil. Faith, the alternative slayer, is sexually aggressive and also, eventually, evil. The parallel universe Willow is also sexually aggressive (and evil) and also a lesbian, which the real Willow also becomes after losing her virginity to one of the male characters. If there’s one important lesson to be learned from Buffy, it’s that it’s probably best to leave sexual power to the men, as the women just can’t seem to be trusted with it. Buffy’s creator and geek messiah, Joss Whedon, has, by association, taken on the mantle of Feminist Ubergeek, despite his next female lead, River Tam from Firefly, being an essentially brain-damaged fighting machine. (Interestingly, the actress who played River Tam is now on The Sarah Conner Chronicles, playing a Terminator.)

Speaking of Firefly, The other female characters on that show were the whore with a heart of gold (though it’s okay because whores are apparently highly respected in that universe) and the sexy farmer’s daughter who crushes on the nerd (but it’s okay because she’s also a mechanic) and the remaining type of female character in the geek world, the wo-man.

The wo-man is a male character who happens to also have breasts. She is written exactly as the male characters are, shares all the same interests of the male characters, and has all the same problems of the male characters. Other than the breasts, her only other signifier of being female is that she will be in a relationship with one of the male characters. In addition to Zoe, the Firefly character mentioned above, other notable wo-men characters are Dana Scully from The X-Files and Starbuck from Battlestar Galactica.

In the comic book world, if there’s an alleged strong female character, you can count on one thing: she was raped. Rape seems to be the hands-down favorite motivator for turning an ordinary schlubette into an empowerment role-model. Famed comics writer Chris Claremont was a champ at rocketing women from the doomed planet of Rape-ton to emerge as Superwomen. That is, when he wasn’t creating imaginary girlfriends for geeks.

The bottom line is, geeks are quite accepting of Strong Female Characters so long as they know their place as secondary to the Strong Male Characters. Even the wo-men listed above, strong as they may be, are still subordinate to a male character. If possible, Strong Female Characters should have been made strong due to actions taken by male characters (preferably via textual or subtextual rape). It is also vital that the Strong Female Characters show a fondness for either the character that is most like the geek himself or the character that the geek is most likely to think he is.

So long as they don’t get too uppity, geeks LOVE Strong Female Characters Who Actually Aren’t.

73 Responses

  1. Oh hell yes.

  2. I’m really enjoying the site and I think this is overall one of the best points you’ve brought up actually, but I’m not sure the “wo-man” argument doesn’t weaken it, even in lighthearted ribbing terms. Outside her career, Scully’s concerns are all about family and maternity and whatnot, bordering into stereotypically female. Starbuck is a good example, but that series is so full of different types of strong women, which for me cripples the argument that she’s an example of poor writing of women.

    Like I say, I only point this out because the point you’re making overall is one that should be made more often.

    And, in more fun terms, Leia is totally wearing a bra in the first movie. Check Carrie Fisher’s appearance on SNL to see the very obvious difference to how she looks in that costume without one.

  3. Yeah, I’m with Neil here. Again, funny stuff. But you go one step too far with your wo-man examples. Although I lost interest in the X-Files after a while, Scully seemed like a fairly well-rounded female character. And Whedon only had about a dozen episodes to develop Zoe on Firefly before the show got canceled — we have no way of knowing where he planned to go with that character. On the surface, she appeared to be masculine, but we only got a small window on her life.

    Plus, you’re dismissing the fact that the female characters on that show are a hell of a lot more compelling than the male characters, and not because they’re weak, but because they are all so obviously strong, but “flawed” in some way, with the clear potential to rise above their flaws and surpass the men. Which is pretty much a metaphor for the standing of women in our society these days — considered weak for centuries, but once they find their strength, look out.

    As for comics, I can’t argue much with you. Women have really gotten the short shrift there, unfortunately, but hopefully that will change the more women who actually help create them.

  4. because they are all so obviously strong, but “flawed” in some way

    This is the problem with Joss Whedon fan. They see this, they think it’s Shakespeare Reborn. For people who read and see things that AREN’T niche genre work, it’s more like “bare-bones character building.” It’s not special.

  5. We all have our tastes, Ken. Lots of people agree that Whedon kind of knows what he’s doing when it comes to crafting a story. I don’t think anybody here said he was “Shakespeare Reborn”, but he’s at least good enough at what he does to have built up a large cult following, on par with Kevin Smith, Judd Apatow, or J.J. Abrams. And a least half of that fan base is women. So he’s doing something right.

    Still, if you don’t like him, you don’t like him. It’s not special to you. I don’t care for Jim Jarmusch or Michael Bay movies. Yet I don’t feel the need to act superior to people who do and/or classify them as having a “problem”. But if this makes you feel better about yourself, go for it.

  6. built up a large cult following, on par with Kevin Smith, Judd Apatow, or J.J. Abrams.

    No, he hasn’t.

  7. It ain’t Shakespeare, but I don’t think the “he’s not a proper feminist” argument holds much water. He seems to pretty consistently hold feminist views and if his work doesn’t express them without problems that’s because he’s got that whole “you must hurt your characters frequently and vividly!” thing going.

    And on-topic, there are various approaches to creating an at-least ostensibly strong female character, and I think each of them has its pitfalls- too sexual and she’s a fantasy object, too non-sexual and she’s a wo-man, too perfect, too flawed, etc. I’m not sure I can point to a single female character who does not have some element that can be validly interpreted as problematic- everyone has different views of what the best approach is to creating “strong women”.

  8. Good point, Evan. And I think it’s a dilemma faced just as often by non-genre shows/movies as by genre ones.

  9. No, sorry. Whedon creates only three kinds of women: sexpots, geek girls, and ass-kickers. The hero becomes the hero by having more than one of these traits.

    He’s slightly more feminist than a wet t-shirt contest, and that’s fine, but his fans’ insistence that he’s some kind of enlightened storyteller—when everything they praise him for is the absolute least anyone expects from any competent storyteller—is obnoxious.

  10. Now, Ken, be fair…he executive produced a television show that was a mild success on UHF channels. If that’s not the definition of “changed the face of television forever” I don’t know what is!

  11. Look, hating his work is one thing, but a feminist is someone who believes in equality between the sexes, period. Saying someone doesn’t deserve that label because their female characters are limited is narrowing the field a bit too much. Just because he’s overpraised doesn’t mean that the backlash should extend to calling him a chauvinist pig.

  12. It does in this room, Evan.

  13. That is not helping.

  14. Evan, all I’m saying is do you honestly expect them to agree that anything about Whedon is good? It’s a losing battle.

  15. It’s not Whedon in specific as the overall idea that you can be a feminist and still not be free of problematic elements in your portrayal of women. I would go so far as to say that a strong woman character portrayal does not have to be completely free of gender issues to still come out on the positive side, but of course that’s a subjective evaluation.

  16. I always wonder why “wo-men” belong on lists like this one. Men and women aren’t so different that it’s completely implausible for them to act the same way or have the same interests – it happens all the time, in my experience.
    If anything, I’d say there are too many female characters with some stereotypically girly qualities tacked on, which can make them less believable (e. g. it really detracts from an action-adventure character’s badass status if she has to have at least one adorably vulnerable moment per episode just to show that she’s a woman… not to mention the fighting-in-heels-and-makeup thing, but I’ll not go into that.) Why is it so important that female characters be different?

  17. Hmm…I’ve got Issues with Claremont’s handling of heroines & their sexuality, but I can’t come up with any who had rape origin stories – IIRC all the rape was shoehorned in later by other authors to his disgust (q.v. Ms. Marvel) and while it was clear that avoiding being sexually abused as she reached puberty was part of Storm’s motivation for leaving her thieves’ guild, her motivation for using her superpowers was always a constructive one, and having her family killed in an air raid/being buried in the wreckage was always shown as the formative trauma in her past…

    Other than that, pretty much yeah. *Especially* with the depowering of Princess Leia. 1977 Leia was inspirational, 1980’s less so and 1983 – well, it started great with the bounty-hunter disguise and then turned into a huge slap in the face to us 1977 fangirls.

  18. Tell us a strong female character, Andrew! We await in anticipation!

  19. What about Ripley from the Aliens trilogy? I am curious as to what people think about her. She pretty much took matters into her own hands and was second to none of the male characters.

    Keep in mind that the Ripley from Alien Resurrection doesn’t count since she was a clone of her and not Ripley herself.

  20. I like wo-men. I consider my own femaleness to be something which only applies to very specific things — who I’m attracted to, and how my plumbing works. It does not apply to my job. It does not apply to my hobbies. While I am aware that some other women are constantly made aware of their femaleness by the actions of other people, and thus do not have the luxury of ignoring it even if they want to, I am fortunate enough not to live or work in that kind of environment.

    When I look back on fictional female characters that I have most identified with, and most enjoyed watching or reading about, they’re mostly wo-men. When I make up my own heroic characters, they’re mostly wo-men.

    I’m with Lavode here. I hate it when a female character is suddenly given some obligatory feminine traits because someone decided that she wasn’t womanly enough the way she was.

    It’s especially frustrating when a character in an ostensibly gender-neutral science fiction setting displays stereotypical feminine traits from the 20th century — whether she inexplicably becomes emotional, or gives a Meaningful Speech about Topical Feminist Issues. And as someone with all the maternal instinct of a velociraptor, I find it incredibly grating when a character who has shown no prior interest in or liking for children whatsoever encounters a cute baby and Discovers Her Caring Side.

    Women don’t need to do womanly things in order to be women. They already are women. There are real women who really do behave just like men with breasts, and there should be a place for them in fiction.

  21. Ivycat: I recently found out that all the characters in Alien were written as male (or gender-neutral, which in practice meant male), and none of the dialogue was rewritten after women were cast in two of the roles. I guess that makes Ripley the ultimate wo-man. ;)

    Quite frankly, I think this is the only way some writers can ever hope to write female characters who aren’t dreadful.

  22. I agree with Lavode and Confluence regarding ‘wo-men’. These are also the kinds of characters I’ve always tended to identify with, since for the most part I’m not into stereotypically feminine stuff. It’s frustrating to see those kinds of characters dismissed because some people have decided that a woman is only a woman if she signifies it in a limited range of stereotypical ways.

    Would we ever have a conversation in which a male character who didn’t do a lot of overtly alpha-male stuff was criticised as a (wo)-man? I would hope not, but it seems to happen a lot in reverse…

  23. I recently found out that all the characters in Alien were written as male (or gender-neutral, which in practice meant male), and none of the dialogue was rewritten after women were cast in two of the roles. I guess that makes Ripley the ultimate wo-man. ;)

    Yeah, but Ripley’s mom-status was very important in Aliens. Not that I think that’s a bad thing.

  24. Strong, empowered women posing for men.

    Yeah, really. What a bunch of dumb girls. They really should have more self-respect.

  25. I’m with Lavode. I get really tired of the “She’s just a man with tits” whine. It feeds into the whole “men and women are unknowable to each other” crap that society keeps trying to jam down our throats to vindicate sexist bullshit.

    I love the Starbuck character. The first time my husband and I watched the Battlestar mini-series and the scene with where Starbuck punches out the colonel (?), my husband looked up and said, “Honey, it’s you!”

    I also liked that (so far, I’m only partway through season 1), a lot of Starbuck’s motivations come from something that happened to someone she loved, like you usually see with male comic and SF/F characters, as opposed to something done to her.

  26. Wow. I disagree. Too much to write here, so I wrote it here:

  27. Just another person chiming in to say I couldn’t disagree more with your “wo-man” assertion. I disagree with several other things in this article (though your caption for that pic is full of win), but the wo-man thing is something that continually gets on my nerves, as someone who tends to love strong characters like Starbuck, Ripley, Zoe, etc. Not to mention, that I have numerous geek interests that I’m constantly reminded are considered “male,” such as comic books and sci-fi.

    I wonder if this is an argument people bring up when they subconsciously would prefer to believe that women are mysterious creatures that men can never understand…since it’s pretty much always men that I notice making the “these women are written like men with breasts, and thus are unrealistic” assertion. I really wouldn’t mind never hearing it repeated again.

  28. I’ve actually had a couple of female friends make the “man with tits” complaint before, but I disagree. I mean, really, most of the time we complain that women are depicted as too emotional, too needy, blah blah blah… and then they turn around and bitch about the characters that aren’t that way.

    Makes me crazy.

    And as someone who’s spent a good chunk of her life being accused of being a “man with tits” it just makes me roll my eyes.

  29. Man + tits = person.

    The whole wo-man thing isn’t a problem for me, because um… men have been allowed to be people in stories, without having to conform to any stereotype… as was pointed out, gender neutral typically = male. So a character doesn’t really need to have things specifically tailored to their female ness to be cool– they just need to be equal. Thus– exactly like the male characters, only with girl parts. I greatly prefer characters which could be equally played by a male or a female– thus, they’re human beings.

    Take Starbuck, for example… who was originally a male character, back in the day. So… we should be surprised?

  30. This is way too overwrought and serious to be satire (a la Stuff White People Like), and too smirky and simplistic to be serious analysis. I’m perplexed.

    Oh, and the whole “wo-man” bit is more sexist than pretty much any of the stuff that you’re criticizing.

  31. I think your characterisation of princess Leia is quite off.

    In A New Hope, she gets captured after firing *one* shot. The first thing we hear her say is “help me, male hero, you’re my only hope!” and it’s only repeated, like, 20 times to make certain we get it. During the first half of the movie she’s a captive – getting tortured by the villain in the fetish gear – until she gets rescued by the men. Her *one* moment of initiative lands them all in the garbage crusher where they nearly die. During the latter half she only gets to watch helplessly while the men do all the heroic fighting. Some watershed.

  32. But if she hadn’t needed to be rescued at any point and actually took part in the fighting in the first one, she would’ve just been a “Wo-man.”

  33. quietprofanity: some people are quite vocal about Ripley jumping the shark in Aliens once the writers realised that she was a woman and felt the need to “woman her up” a bit.

    It doesn’t bother me too much; there’s enough alien ass-kicking in the movie to offset it. Plus, Vasquez. :D

    (I’m more annoyed that they whacked Newt and Hicks off-screen between Aliens and Alien 3. It looks like they got bored with a plot point and ditched it in the most contrived way possible instead of trying to do something interesting with it.)

  34. It would be nice if you actually defined what a strong female character was.

  35. “Nobody goes to conventions dressed like Leia in her Hoth outfit.”

    Dude, I totally want to make a “Leia as Bounty Hunter” outfit.

    That is all.

  36. Brendan- A strong female character would be someone who has power on screen without having to kick anyone’s ass.
    Like Judy Dench as ‘M’ in Bond for example or Meryl Streep in some of her films.

    Want an opposite example of that, just look at any film with Keira Knightley, she ruins every film she’s in without fail. Bad thinking to make her an actress.

  37. I completely disagree with you on the Whedon bashing. If you only look at what happens to Whedon’s female characters, you’d think they all have sexual problems, but the men have them too. Angel can’t have sex with women without losing his soul (causes countless problems in ANGEL), Giles lost his love(r) to Angelus, and Spike keeps getting Angel’s left-overs (Dru, Buffy, etc). I think you are being pretty closed minded with his work.

    And I like wo-man characters too. I call them ‘Female Messiah’ characters, they generally aren’t that sexual because they’re too busy saving the world. If we turned a character like that into a male, we’d get the virgin character Luke Skywaker, and because he’s a male, that’s acceptable.

    Not too impressed with this.

  38. Just to be a pain the butt here…but yes, in fact I HAVE seen people at cons dressed in Leia’s Hoth outfit. Not as many as the bikini, no, but it’s still represented. Same with the Boussh disguise, although less of that, because it’s a harder costume to make than Leia’s other outfits. Actually, the Leia costume I’ve seen the least of is her ewok dress.

  39. I am still a bit annoyed that Joss has apparently gotten a pass on the whole “Dead and Evil Lesbian” thing. Yes, the man is one of the most feminist creators working in mainstream media today, but that’s only because he’s being graded on a hell of a curve.

    As nifty as it would have been if Aliens had been written for an nearly-all-male cast and shot with no changes, I don’t think it’s possible. This exchange wouldn’t have made any sense with a male Vasquez:

    Hudson: Hey Vasquez, have you ever been mistaken for a man?
    Vasquez: No. Have you?

    What exactly is the problem with the “wo-man” stereotype? I’ve seen this criticism elsewhere, but it always seems to be rather poorly articulated. If you “girly up” the female characters, you have weak characters. If you don’t, they’re men with tits. What are the always-unspecified aspects of femininity that are missing here?

    Also, I’m surprised that force of personality has been mentioned as a legitimate means of conveying strength for characters without mentioning BSG’s Laura Roslin. Sure, she has mystical (read: womanly) visions, and she’s in charge of the civilian (feminine!) half of human governance, but she certainly does have a commanding presence.

  40. I’m going to construct a female character who is her own woman, leads her own goals through the course of her life, handles her own conflicts by herself, never has time for men because she’s far too successful and consumed in her work, and ultimately rises above all conflict due to know-how and common sense.

    This is a boring character.

    So lemme get this straight:

    1) If I write a character which is gender neutral and addresses her peers as if they are her equals, has comradery with them, and generally is accepted then she must be a man with tits that has no feminity to her name.

    2) If I write her overly feminine with sensibilities that are nuturing and compassionate, then she’s too girly and that’s patronizing.

    3) If I ever include any sort of male counterpart/love interest then her integrity as a strong female character is compromised because suddenly she is defined by that man.

    4) Joss Whedon can make women as sexually deviant/ mary sue-ish as he wants and it will still be held as pro-feminist.

    Kthnx, I think I’ll stick to just writing characters that are strong in the sense that they have their own skill sets of strengths and flaws rather that worrying who I’ll be offending.

  41. Jay, the easiest way is probably to include several female characters and make them different.

  42. I too, feel vaguely insulted by the wo-man characterization. How is my life as a woman so intricately different from a man’s life as a man? The wo-man concept to me is thinly veiled homophobia. She “acts” like a man, but isn’t a dyke??? Abomination! Never found in nature! A false construct of male fantasy! Never mind that I played with race cars and action figures as a child all the while crushing on Shaun Cassidy and Dirk Benedict. That’s just WRONG. I should have played with Barbies and wanted to be a princess if I was a “real” hetero girl… egro I’m a closet lesbian, or a fake, since there’s no such thing as a ‘wo-man’ outside of fiction.

    Two really strong female characters were overlooked by this entry — Ripley, as mentioned by many other commentors, and President Roslyn on BSG. Roslyn is certainly a “feminine” woman, but in no way a weakling needing answers and reassurance from men. And since when is writing human characters as gender-neutral (as in Alien) a disservice to women? Never having been male, I can’t really say how different my attitudes and perceptions of my life experiences would be if I’d been born Michael instead of Monlynn, but I would certainly have retained my basic core of humanity and individualism no matter what my biology was.

    There’s a point at which the sexes diverge in terms of life experience and attitude, but the idea that the wo-man is a construct never found irl is false and ultimately as sexist as any Gor “heroine”.

  43. hi

  44. ‘the sexy farmer’s daughter who crushes on the nerd (but it’s okay because she’s also a mechanic)’

    The sexy mechanic is probably more sexually experienced than the nerd doctor that she ends up getting into romance with.

    Seriously, if you have a problem with sexy female mechanics, good luck getting *any* kind of story written. You might as well confine yourself to reading whatever existing books don’t offend you.

  45. […] I'm sure there's tons more like this out there, but I should really just actually post already… Strong Female Character Who Actually Aren't __________________ Visit Me at deviantART! Mortality's Folly OOC ~ Mortality's Folly […]

  46. I was sent this link in response to something similar I had said in a post/blog, less focused ( and less proficient ) but very similar to the points made in that section.

    I’m impressed, and this once I may not mind being out-done.

  47. Is Scully a non-geek who, paired with geek Mulder at the FBI’s request, eventually becomes a geek because geek is ‘the truth?’

  48. I think it’s fairly well acknowledged already but I also wanted to note my disagreement with the “wo-man” opinion. Why is there so much emphasis on the differences between us? If a woman is not distinctively different from other male characters, that makes her a man? Puh-lease. I share most of my interests with male friends and I don’t feel any less feminine. Heck, I’m attracted to women but that does nothing to lessen my femininity.

    I think it’s about time we looked at the similarities than focusing on the differences. Female and male characters can accomplish the same things without degrading themselves or giving in to some cop-out cliché. It’s just lazy writing otherwise.

    That said, I don’t want to be seeing female characters without flaws either. A flawless protagonist is boring is, quite obviously, unbelievable. Also, having some characters with more ‘girly’ traits doesn’t mean that the writer’s are necessarily giving in to perceive public opinion either. We’re all different, after all. That’s what makes us interesting. :)

  49. Which is more geeky that depicts strong yet so sexy female characters: ‘Baywatch’ or ‘Tank Girl’ both starring Pamela Anderson? ‘Salt’ or ‘Tomb Raider’ featured Angelina Jolie, or an anime cartoon hit like ‘Sailor Moon’ or ‘Totally Spies’?

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  72. I’m yet another person who hates your complaint about “wo-man” characters. What the heck is supposed to be the essential femininity that these characters are missing? I’m a woman and I don’t think I necessarily have more in common with other women than with men.
    I do think that there’s room for more well-written and powerful characters with feminine traits – both female, and especially male, characters. But that doesn’t mean that it’s bad for a woman to not be at all feminine.

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